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Volume 207, 2018
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Faraday Discussions

Adenine radicals generated in alternating AT duplexes by direct absorption of low-energy UV radiation

Akos Banyasz , Tiia Ketola , Lara Martínez-Fernández , Roberto Improta * and Dimitra Markovitsi *

* Corresponding authors

LIDYL, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France MICHAEL Michael Kors Simone Mid Sandal 8zaXO
, dimitra.markovitsi@cea.fr

Istituto Biostrutture e Bioimmagini – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Mezzocannone 16, I-80134 Napoli, Italy

There is increasing evidence that the direct absorption of photons with energies that are lower than the ionization potential of nucleobases may result in oxidative damage to DNA. The present work, which combines nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and quantum mechanical calculations, studies this process in alternating adenine–thymine duplexes (AT). We show that the one-photon ionization quantum yield of (AT) at 266 nm (4.66 eV) is (1.5 ± 0.3) × 10. According to our PCM/TD-DFT calculations carried out on model duplexes composed of two base pairs, (AT) and (TA), simultaneous base pairing and stacking does not induce important changes in the absorption spectra of the adenine radical cation and deprotonated radical. The adenine radicals, thus identified in the time-resolved spectra, disappear with a lifetime of 2.5 ms, giving rise to a reaction product that absorbs at 350 nm. In parallel, the fingerprint of reaction intermediates other than radicals, formed directly from singlet excited states and assigned to AT/TA dimers, is detected at shorter wavelengths. PCM/TD-DFT calculations are carried out to map the pathways leading to such species and to characterize their absorption spectra; we find that, in addition to the path leading to the well-known TA* photoproduct, an AT photo-dimerization path may be operative in duplexes.

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The article was received on 24 Jul 2017, accepted on 12 Sep 2017 and first published on 12 Sep 2017

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September 26, 2017 by MSW@USC Staff

“I’m sure you’ve shot at people,” one of Michael Henderson’s classmates said. “Why don’t you tell us what death is about?”

It was a classroom debate, on a liberal American campus, about the use of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Henderson was the only person in the class who’d served in the military — four years in the Marine Corps, serving in Iraq. All eyes turned to him.

His classmate’s request was a hard one. How do you explain death on the battlefield to someone who’s never been on one?

“There is this misunderstanding that civilians have,” Henderson said. “When you serve you don’t always expect to shoot someone, but you always know there’s a possibility you can shoot at someone.”

For Henderson, the hardest part of his transition was trying to relate to those around him. The structure of college gave him a good place to think through his own experiences in Iraq and to recognize that many civilians will never understand those experiences. But he notes that the transition to civilian life has been much more difficult for some of his peers who aren’t able to create a separate life from the Marine Corps.

“You get used to everything being in lockstep and then all of a sudden you have to create that routine for yourself,” he said. “I think that’s where a lot of friends that I’ve had from the Corps have fallen. They didn’t have something to rally behind — for me it was school, for others it may have been a child.”

For many veterans, the transition process could be improved by focusing on broader life skills.

According to the Department of Defense External link , about 1,300 military service members, spouses and children transition into civilian communities each day. And while a series of studies External link conducted by USC’s Center for Innovation and Research on Veterans and Military Families (CIR) at the Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work show that the majority of veterans look favorably on their military experience, the majority also report having difficulty adjusting to civilian life, which can lead to larger problems such as joblessness, homelessness and untreated mental health conditions.

Sara Kintzle, research associate professor at the USC Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work, helped to conduct the surveys. In general, she said, “What you see is a lack of preparedness for transition and a lack of understanding of expectations for what life is going to be like after the military.”

Read the text-only version of this infographic.

Service members separating from the military go through a Transition Assistance Program designed to help prepare them with a skill set to succeed in the next phase of their life. These programs focus on hard skills such as writing a resume, interviewing for potential jobs, and writing cover letters. Henderson’s skills training program lasted just one day.

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Abstract : We have studied Josephson junctions with barriers prepared from the Heusler compound Cu _2 MnAl. In the as-prepared state the Cu _2 MnAl layers are non ferromagnetic and the critical Josephson current density j_{c} decreases exponentially with the thickness of the Heusler layers d_{F} . On annealing the junctions at 240\degree C the Heusler layers develop ferromagnetic order and we observe a de… ▽ More We have studied Josephson junctions with barriers prepared from the Heusler compound Cu _2 MnAl. In the as-prepared state the Cu _2 MnAl layers are non ferromagnetic and the critical Josephson current density j_{c} decreases exponentially with the thickness of the Heusler layers d_{F} . On annealing the junctions at 240\degree C the Heusler layers develop ferromagnetic order and we observe a dependence j_{c}(d_{F} ) with j_{c} strongly enhanced and weakly thickness dependent in the thickness range 7.0 nm < d_{F} < 10.6 nm. We attribute this feature to a triplet component in the superconducting pairing function generated by the specific magnetization profile inside thin Cu _2 MnAl layers. △ Less

Submitted 10 March, 2010; originally announced March 2010.

Comments: 4 pages, 4 figures

MSC Class: 74.45+c; 74.25.Nf; 74.78.Fk

arXiv:1001.2380 [, , other ] cond-mat.mes-hall

doi 10.1063/1.3377897

Josephson supercurrent in Nb/InN-nanowire/Nb junctions

Authors: R. Frielinghaus , I. E. Batov , M. Weides , H. Kohlstedt , R. Calarco , Th. Schaepers

Abstract : We experimentally studied the Josephson supercurrent in Nb/InN-nanowire/Nb junctions. Large critical currents up to 5.7 μ A have been achieved, which proves the good coupling of the nanowire to the superconductor. The effect of a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the Josephson junction on the critical current has been studied. The observed monotonous decrease of the critical current… ▽ More We experimentally studied the Josephson supercurrent in Nb/InN-nanowire/Nb junctions. Large critical currents up to 5.7 μ A have been achieved, which proves the good coupling of the nanowire to the superconductor. The effect of a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the Josephson junction on the critical current has been studied. The observed monotonous decrease of the critical current with magnetic field is explained by the magnetic pair-breaking effect in planar Josephson junctions of ultra-narrow width [J. C. Cuevas and F. S. Bergeret, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217002 (2007)] △ Less

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Issue 2.2018 includes articles on:
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